Cardiac Pharmacology is the study about Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cardiovascular System. The effect of drugs on the Cardiovascular system i.e., Vasoconstriction, Renal Perfusion and other reflex actions on the Myocardium comes under Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Pharmacokinetics generally deals with Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination of the drugs administered. Cardiac Pharmacology also involves Toxic effects of the drugs and how to treat such intoxications. Lignocaine and Quinidine are the drugs which are obtained from the Plant sources. Dosage and Administration of drugs are the major Criteria considered under Pharmacology.Post20

  • Track 20-1Cardiotoxicity
  • Track 20-2Myocardial Contractility
  • Track 20-3Cardiotonic Agents
  • Track 20-4Antihypotensive Agents
  • Track 20-5Vascular Medicine
  • Track 20-6Cardiac therapeutics

Session #19 Cardiac Nursing

Cardiac Nursing is the service provided by the Cardiac care Nurses who help the Patients suffering from Cardiovascular system. It involves advance cardiovascular care for patients such as surgical tests, stress tests, cardiac monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac care Nurses assist in stress test evaluations, Cardiac and Vascular monitoring, Health assessments, Electrocardiogram monitoring and taking care of patients who had undergone Bypass, Angioplasty or Pacemaker surgery. Cardiac Care Nurses address the entire journey of the patients including their Health promotion, disease prevention, Management of acute and Chronic conditions, Rehabilitation and Palliation. Post19

  • Track 19-1 Advances in Cardiac Nursing
  • Track 19-2 Nurse-led Cardiovascular Procedures
  • Track 19-3 Cardiovascular Nurse Care
  • Track 19-4 Nursing Care Plan
  • Track 19-5 Cardiovascular Nurse Education

Session #18 Diagnosis of Heart Diseases

The first and foremost diagnosis is measuring the rate of heartbeat and checking Blood Pressure. The diagnosis of the heart can be made by various methods such as imaging techniques, surgeries, Electrophysiology, Angiography, Radiography, etc. The widely used tests for diagnosing Cardiac issues are Chest X-ray, Stress Test, Tilt Table Test, Echo-cardiogram, CT Heart Scan, Myocardial Biopsy, Heart MRI and Pericardiocentesis. Pericardiocentesis is also known as pericardial tap means collecting the fluid from the sac surrounding the heart and analyzing it for any sign of infection, inflammation or Presence of Cancer. Medical care is very essential once heart disease is diagnosed. The goals of treatment are stabilizing the condition, controlling long-term symptoms and healing if possible. Post18.png

  • Track 18-1 Cardiogeriatrics
  • Track 18-2 Electrocardiogram(ECG)
  • Track 18-3 Echocardiogram(heart ultra sound)
  • Track 18-4 Chest X-ray
  • Track 18-5 Nuclear Cardiac Stress test
  • Track 18-6 Coronary Computed Tomography Angiogram(CCTA)
  • Track 18-7 Electrophysiology studies


Heart diseases that are caused due to direct or indirect effects of elevated Blood Pressure are said to be Hypertensive Heart diseases.some of the hypertensive Heart diseases include left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery disease (CAD), Cardiac Arrhythmias and Congestive Heart Failure(CHF). The factors which are involved in the Etiology of Hypertensive heart diseases such as Hemodynamic, Structural, Neuroendocrine, Cellular, and Molecular factors and these factors lead to the development of hypertension and its Complications.

Cushing’s syndrome is often accompanied by Cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), Diabetes Mellitus(high blood glucose levels) and high blood lipid levels. It is also noted that patients who are not or not completely cured of Cushing’s syndrome remain at risk for cardiovascular diseases. post17

  • Track 17-1Pathophysiology of Hypertension
  • Track 17-2Cardiovascular Risk Factors
  • Track 17-3Consequences of Hypertension
  • Track 17-4Cushings Syndrome

Session #16 Advancements in Cardiac Imaging

Cardiac Imaging enables physicians to validate the evidence of coronary artery diseases in order to provide early, effective treatments for patients. Unlike other diagnosis methods, cardiology requires additional attention to rule out the disease accurately. Hence each method has its own advantages that help the physicians to understand how best to treat aspects of heart disease. The ultimate goal is to ensure the best care for the patients throughout their lifetime. There are many newest radiology technology advances in which the researchers are working in depth. Post16.jpg

  • Track 16-1 Coronary Catheterization
  • Track 16-2 Echocardiogram
  • Track 16-3 Cardiac PET scan
  • Track 16-4 Intravascular Ultrasound
  • Track 16-5 Cardiac MRI
  • Track 16-6 Cardiac CT scan

HF Patients with Sleep Apnea can have a good sleep with this device.

Sleep-disordered breathing (central or obstructive) is common in patients with Heart Failure (HF) and is associated with adverse consequences. A study of ventilatory support with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with central apnea and HF was inconclusive but had suggestive posthoc subgroup findings of possible benefits when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was greatly reduced. In a manufacturer-sponsored, randomized, controlled trial, investigators have now assessed servo-controlled inspiratory pressure combined with expiratory positive pressure support.good sleep is a root for healthy heart